Cotton Fiber Carding Machine Diagram With Working Principle

 

Cotton Fiber Carding Machine Diagram With Working Principle

Cotton fiber carding is a crucial process in the textile industry, responsible for preparing raw cotton fibers for spinning. The carding machine plays a pivotal role in this process, effectively disentangling, cleaning, and aligning the fibers to produce a uniform sliver suitable for further processing.


Objectives Of Carding Machine


  1. Opening and cleaning: The carding machine separates the fibers from each other, removing impurities like dust, seeds, and leaf fragments. This process ensures that only clean, high-quality fibers are used for yarn production.


  1. Individualization of fibers: The carding machine separates the fibers into individual units, ensuring that they are evenly distributed and aligned. This process is essential for producing smooth, strong yarns.


  1. Parallelization of fibers: The carding machine aligns the fibers in a parallel orientation, which makes them easier to spin into yarn. This process also improves the strength and uniformity of the yarn.


  1. Removal of neps: Neps are small tangled clusters of fibers that can cause problems during spinning. The carding machine effectively removes neps, ensuring that the fibers are smooth and free from defects.


  1. Blending of fibers: When different types of fibers are blended together, the carding machine ensures that they are evenly mixed. This process is important for creating yarns with desired properties.


  1. Formation of sliver: The carding machine combines the individual fibers into a continuous strand called a sliver. The sliver is then fed into subsequent stages of the yarn spinning process.



Parts Of Carding Machine


The primary components of a cotton fiber carding machine include:


Parts Of Carding Machine



  1. Main Cylinder: A large, rotating cylinder covered with fine wires, responsible for the primary carding action.

  2. Flats: Stationary bars positioned close to the main cylinder, also covered with fine wires, further enhancing the carding process.

  3. Taker-in: A rotating cylinder with inclined teeth that grasps the cotton fibers from the feed roller and transfers them to the main cylinder.

  4. Feed Roller: A rotating roller that regulates the supply of cotton fibers to the taker-in.

  5. Doffer: A rotating cylinder with finer wires than the main cylinder, responsible for removing the carded fibers from the main cylinder.

  6. Licker-in: A rotating cylinder with sharp teeth that cleans the main cylinder and doffer surfaces.

  7. Coiler: A mechanism that collects the carded fibers into a continuous sliver.

  8. Carding Cylinder: A large rotating cylinder covered with fine wires that entangle and align the cotton fibers.

  9. Flats: Stationary bars positioned close to the carding cylinder, also covered with fine wires, further enhancing the carding process.

  10. Licker-in: A rotating cylinder with sharp teeth that cleans the carding cylinder and flats surfaces.

  11. Cylinder Cover: A cover that encloses the carding cylinder and flats to prevent the escape of fibers.

  12. Carding Zone: The area where the carding process takes place, formed by the close proximity of the carding cylinder and flats.



Functions Of Carding Machine


Opening to individual fibers:


The blow room only opens the raw material to flocks, while the carding must open it to the stage of individual fibers. This is essential to enable elimination of impurities and performance of the other operations.


Elimination of impurities:


Elimination of foreign matter occurs mainly in the zone of taker in and cylinder. The degree of cleaning achieved by the modern card is very high. Card sliver still contains 0.05 – 0.3% foreign matter.


Neps removal:


While the number of neps increases from machine to machine in the blow room, the carding reduces the neps by carding action. Actually neps are not eliminated at the carding, they are mostly opened out.


Elimination of short fibers:


Elimination of short fibers in the carding must be viewed in proportion, actually very small, the less than 1% short fibers.


Sliver formation:


To deposit fiber material, to transport it and process it further an appropriate product must be formed. This is the sliver.


Carding Machine Working Principle/Carding Machine Process/Function Of Cylinder In Carding Machine


Carding Machine Working Principle/Carding Machine Process/Function Of Cylinder In Carding Machine



Stage 1: Feed roller-taker in zone


  • The card mat is pushed into the working zone of the feed roller-taker in.

  • The card mat is opened to tufts by the taker in wire through combing action.


Stage 2: Taker in-cylinder zone


  • From the feed roller-taker in zone, the opened tufts are transferred to the taker in-cylinder working zone for opening to small tuft size.

  • For cleaning, the material is passed over grid equipment and mote knife attached the underside of taker in. Here points are in face to back arrangement.

  • Suction ducts carry away the waste from trash box.


Stage 3: Cylinder-Flat zone


  • The small tufts are then transferred to cylinder-flat zone and opened up into individual fiber which is defined as the actual carding process.

  • Here points are in face to face arrangement.

  • Neps are removed in this zone.

  • The flats comprise 80-116 individual carding bars combined into a belt moving on an endless path and approx. 30-50 flats are active to the main cylinder. The rest are on the return run.

  • During this return, a cleaning unit strips fibers, neps and foreign matter from the flat bars.


Stage 4: Cylinder-doffer zone


  • After the carding operation, the cylinder carries along the fibers that are opened to single and loose condition as well as lie parallel without continuous structure.

  • For the purpose of forming a continuous structure of the carded single fibers the doffer is required.

  • The doffer combines the fibers into a web.

  • Here points are in face to face arrangement.






Carding Machine Actions


Actions Of Carding Machine



Combing Action:


  • Purpose: Opens and cleans fibers

  • Surfaces involved: Feed roller and taker-in

  • Wire direction: Same

  • Speed direction: Same

  • Wire arrangement: Face to back


Stripping Action:


  • Purpose: Opens and cleans fibers

  • Surfaces involved: Taker-in and cylinder

  • Wire direction: Same

  • Speed direction: Opposite

  • Wire arrangement: Face to back


Carding Action:


  • Purpose: Opens fibers to individual fibers and removes neps

  • Surfaces involved: Cylinder and flat

  • Wire direction: Opposite

  • Speed direction: Opposite

  • Wire arrangement: Face to face


Doffing Action:


  • Purpose: Forms a web of fibers

  • Surfaces involved: Cylinder and doffer

  • Wire direction: Opposite

  • Speed direction: Opposite

  • Wire arrangement: Face to face


These four actions work together to transform raw cotton fibers into a uniform, clean, and aligned sliver suitable for spinning into yarn.


Read Also:




Cotton Fiber Carding Machine Passage/Schematic Diagram


Cotton Fiber Carding Machine Passage Diagram
Cotton Fiber Carding Machine Passage Diagram



Cotton Fiber Carding Machine Schematic Diagram
Cotton Fiber Carding Machine Schematic Diagram



The central element is the carding cylinder, a large rotating cylinder covered with fine wires. Surrounding the carding cylinder are stationary bars called flats, also covered with fine wires. These flats are positioned close to the cylinder, forming the carding zone where the fibers are disentangled and aligned.


The taker-in, a smaller rotating cylinder with inclined teeth, is located near the feed roller. The feed roller, another rotating cylinder, regulates the supply of cotton fibers to the taker-in. The taker-in grasps small tufts of fibers and transfers them to the carding cylinder, initiating the carding process.


As the fibers travel along the carding cylinder, they are subjected to the combing action of the fine wires. The wires on the cylinder and flats interlock, separating and aligning the fibers. The doffer, another rotating cylinder with finer wires than the main cylinder, removes the carded fibers from the main cylinder.


The carding cylinder and doffer are both enclosed by covers to prevent the escape of fibers. The licker-in, a rotating cylinder with sharp teeth, is positioned close to the main cylinder and doffer. The licker-in cleans the surfaces of these cylinders, ensuring efficient carding.


Finally, the coiler collects the carded fibers into a continuous sliver, which is then ready for further processing in the textile manufacturing process.



Carding Machine Specifications


Carding machine specifications vary depending on the specific machine model and manufacturer, but some general specifications include:


  • Working width: 1800mm, 2000mm, 2200mm, 2500mm

  • Capacity: 150kg/h, 200kg/h, 300kg/h

  • Cylinder diameter: 1230mm

  • Speed: 20 - 50m/min

  • Power consumption: 7 kW

  • Machine type: Automatic

  • Body material: Mild steel

  • Cylinder wire point density: 550-650 per inch

  • Doffer wire point density: 650-800 per inch

  • Licker-in wire point density: 1000-1200 per inch

  • Cylinder surface speed: 1000ft/min

  • Doffer surface speed: 1200ft/min

  • Licker-in surface speed: 1500ft/min


Additional features:


  • Anti-metal protection device

  • Frequency inverter control

  • Automatic stop motion

  • Dust collection system



Carding Machine Gauge Setting


Carding machine gauge setting is the distance between the carding cylinder and the flat. This setting is critical for the quality of the carded sliver. If the gauge is too close, the fibers will be damaged and the card will be choked. If the gauge is too wide, the fibers will not be carded properly and impurities will remain in the sliver.


Here is a standard carding machine gauge settings for different types of cotton:


  • Short-staple cotton ______0.15-0.20 (mm)

  • Medium-staple cotton______0.20-0.25 (mm)

  • Long-staple cotton______0.25-0.30 (mm)


General Faults In Carding Machine


Carding is a crucial process in the textile industry, responsible for preparing raw cotton fibers for spinning. The carding machine plays a pivotal role in this process, effectively disentangling, cleaning, and aligning the fibers to produce a uniform sliver suitable for further processing.


1. Lower NRE%


Nep removal efficiency (NRE%) is a measure of the carding machine's ability to remove neps, which are small tangled clusters of fibers. Lower NRE% indicates that more neps are present in the card sliver, which can lead to problems in subsequent spinning processes.


Causes of Lower NRE%


  • Improper setting between different card surfaces

  • Incorrect point density of carding wire

  • Damaged carding wire

  • Improper geometry of card cloth

  • Incorrect speed setting of different carding surfaces


2. Higher Sliver CVm%


Sliver coefficient of variation (CVm%) is a measure of the variation in sliver mass per unit length. Higher sliver CVm% indicates that the sliver is uneven, which can lead to problems in subsequent spinning processes.


Causes of Higher Sliver CVm%


  • Malfunctioning of card autoleveller


3. Sliver Breakage


Sliver breakage can occur due to disruptions in material inflow or incorrect calendar roller pressure.


Causes of Sliver Breakage


  • Disruption in material inflow

  • Incorrect calendar roller pressure


4. Poor Web Structure


Poor web structure can be caused by damaged doffer wire or improper stripping roller function.


Causes of Poor Web Structure


  • Damaged doffer wire

  • Improper stripping roller function


5. Out of Levelling Limit


If the control limit of leveling is exceeded, the machine stops. This can be caused by disruptions in material inflow from the blow room or jamming in the chute device.


Causes of Out of Levelling Limit


  • Disruptions in material inflow from blow room

  • Jamming in chute device


6. Roller Lapping


Roller lapping can occur due to improper working ambient conditions (RH%, temp.).


Causes of Roller Lapping


  • Improper working ambient conditions (RH%, temp.)

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